For postmenopausal breast cancer, there’s a strong body of evidence that shows exercising reduces the risk. But cancer can take years to develop. A new study that may help explain the link now suggests that when young women jog and are aerobically active it causes changes in estrogen metabolism, which then plays a role in reducing later breast cancer risk.
The study, published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, is one of only a few clinical trials to focus on exercise and estrogen metabolism among younger women.
Study researchers wanted to focus on estrogen metabolism because the majority of breast cancers are related to the hormone estrogen. Research suggests that a higher lifetime exposure to estrogen increases a woman’s risk for breast cancer. Yet there are many forms of estrogen and they appear to play a different role in risk.
Lab studies have suggested that two of the forms, estradiol and estrone, play a role in cancer development. These forms of estrogen break down or metabolize into compounds and it’s the ratio of these metabolites that studies have suggested may influence breast cancer risk.
For this study, researchers randomly divided almost 400 sedentary young women into two groups: about half of the women were asked to exercise regularly and the others continued with their inactive lifestyle. All the women were premenopausal and the groups included women who were roughly the same age and weight. Continue reading
If that organic yogurt you’ve switched to just feels all-around healthier than its non-organic counterpart, it’s possible you may be under the powerful sway of its “organic” label, suggests a new study.
The study was published early online today in Food Quality and Preference.
Researchers went to a mall and laid out pairs of three foods: yogurt, cookies, and potato chips. Each pair of foods was identical to one another. The only difference between the two foods was its packaging. One yogurt, cookie and potato chip packaging prominently displayed that the item was organic. (All were actually organic.) None of the items featured brand names and the packaging was designed to appear similar.
Yet after the 115 participants tasted each pair of foods, one after the other, they judged the organic yogurt and cookies as having fewer calories than its twin. For example, the shoppers estimated the organic cookie had on average 48 fewer calories than the conventional. Continue reading
Cutting down on hot dogs, sausages and bacon may help you avoid a premature death from cancer, along with heart disease and other causes, suggests a new study of almost half a million Europeans.
The study, published online in BMC Medicine, calculated that 3.3 percent of the deaths in the study could have been prevented if participants ate less than 20 grams of processed meat – about equal to a piece of bacon – every day.
AICR’s expert report and its continuous updates show that both processed meat and high amounts of red meat increase the risk of colorectal cancer.
The BMC Medicine study investigated the links between red meat, processed meat and mortality. They used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, including approximately 450,000 participants from ten European countries. When the men and women entered the study, between the ages of 35 and 69, they were free of cancer and and heart disease. Continue reading